There was one French, however, who had converted to Hinduism in her pursuit for the Aryan culture and called Hitler, the greatest European and regarded him as an avatar of Lord Vishnu. Witnesses heard the assailant shout “Allahu Akbar” or “God is Greatest”, a police source said. Muslim clerics consider this proposal as unacceptable because under the shariah-derived personal law, a Muslim girl can be married at any age after she reaches puberty. After the temple and city were abandoned in 1431 some Buddhists - evicted lord Vishnu from the central shrine, smashed his image and installed Buddha. [49] One need not be religious in the minimal sense, states Julius Lipner, to be accepted as Hindu by Hindus, or to describe oneself as Hindu. [73] The Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. [64][65], At more than 1.2 billion,[66] Hindus are the world's third largest group after Christians and Muslims. [51] Followers of other Indian religions so identified were later referred Buddhists, Sikhs or Jains and distinguished from Hindus, in an antagonistic two-dimensional manner, with Hindus and Hinduism stereotyped as irrational traditional and others as rational reform religions. [178] Along with Christians (31.5%), Muslims (23.2%) and Buddhists (7.1%), Hindus are one of the four major religious groups of the world. Pashaura Singh states, "in Persian writings, Sikhs were regarded as Hindu in the sense of non-Muslim Indians". Anjali Pandey, Re‐Englishing ‘flat‐world’ fiction, World Englishes, 10.1111/weng.12370, 38, 1-2, (200-218), (2019). The term 'Hindu' meant people who were non-Muslims, and it included Buddhists of the region. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era,[53] the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu (Indus) river. [159][161], Chris Bayly traces the roots of Hindu nationalism to the Hindu identity and political independence achieved by the Maratha confederacy, that overthrew the Islamic Mughal empire in large parts of India, allowing Hindus the freedom to pursue any of their diverse religious beliefs and restored Hindu holy places such as Varanasi. [187][188], "Hindoo" and "Hindu" redirect here. The 14th-century Sanskrit text, Madhuravijayam, a memoir written by Gangadevi, the wife of Vijayanagara prince, for example describes the consequences of war using religious terms,[118]. [69][70] This word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan[71] and Sanskrit[71][53] word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean". [58] Temples dedicated to deity Rama were built from north to south India, and textual records as well as hagiographic inscriptions began comparing the Hindu epic of Ramayana to regional kings and their response to Islamic attacks. Example sentences from the Collins Corpus, Get the latest news and gain access to exclusive updates and offers. [160] The Hindu nationalism ideology that emerged, states Jeffrelot, was codified by Savarkar while he was a political prisoner of the British colonial empire. [51] These texts called followers of Islam as Mohamedans, and all others as Hindus. Hinduism came to Indonesia in the 1st-century through traders, sailors, scholars and priests. Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life. Varanasi as a sacred pilgrimage site is documented in the Varanasimahatmya text embedded inside the Skanda Purana, and the oldest versions of this text are dated to 6th to 8th-century CE. hindou(e) a Hindu temple un temple hindou. It was used as the name of the Indus River and also referred to its tributaries. [73] While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. The three-week race won’t be starting on June 27 in Nice as scheduled. The coconut trees have all been cut and in their place are to be seen, Binu’s work was featured in the French documentary that aired recently in TV news programme on France 2 channel under the title ‘Know the Indian Tree Doctor’. The remains of the earliest temple structure were discovered in Surkh Kotal, a place in Afghanistan, by a French archeologist in 1951. [51], According to Pennington, the terms Hindu and Hinduism were thus constructed for colonial studies of India. "The word "Thug" comes from the Urdu thagi, which is taken from the Sanskrit sthaga meaning "scoundrel" or "cunning one." If you’re catching up with a French-speaking friend, old or new, you’ll probably want to ask them how they are, and vice versa. ", "Hindus from Pakistan flee to India, citing religious persecution", Religious Composition by Country (December 2012), Hindu population totals in 2010 by Country, Table: Religious Composition (%) by Country, Total Fertility Rates of Hindus by Region, 2010–2050, Projected Global Hindu Population, 2010–2050, "Grasping the Nettle: Indian Nationalism and Globalization", "The Hermeneutics of the word "Religion" and Its Implications for the World of Indian Religions", "Hinduism: On the Proper Use of a Deceptive Term", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hindus&oldid=998805115, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, follow a tradition centred on any particular form of the Divine, such as, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 03:07. 11-year-old Vraj shows us around a Hindu temple, called a mandir, and tells us about the religious statues called murtis that Hindus keep in their temples and homes. Leslie Orr (2014), Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God, Oxford University Press, Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), page 37. Why white supremacists and Hindu nationalists are so alike. I am confident that we are going to have some new French investment in Chennai either in production or R&D. Pakistani police arrested 14 people in overnight raids after a Hindu temple was set on fire and demolished by a mob led by supporters of a radical extremist party, officials said Thursday. In southern India, the Thugs are also known as Phansigar, signifying "strangler" or "user of a garotte," after their favorite method of dispatching their victims. [136] The tradition and temples likely existed well before the medieval era Hindu manuscripts appeared that describe them and the sacred geography. Hindus live with a legacy of domination by Muslim and Christian rulers that stretches back many centuries—in northern India, to the Delhi sultanate established at the beginning of the 13th century. Robert Zaehner (1997), Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Barnes & Noble Publishing. In this short article, we explain and provide some examples of the most common French verb tenses you'll come across. Earth is no longer the producer of wealth, nor does Indra give timely rains, [129] Marriages between Sikhs and Hindus, particularly among Khatris, were frequent. As in India, Indonesian Hindus recognises four paths of spirituality, calling it Catur Marga. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hi[n]dush, referring to northwestern India. Comments will be moderated by The Hindu Business Line editorial team. Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (1998), Representing the other? Hinduism is one of the six official religions of Indonesia. [91] The term does not include those who identify with other Indian religions such as Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism or various animist tribal religions found in India such as Sarnaism. The sixth book of the Mahabharata is an 18-chapter poem called the Bhagavad Gita, which means "Song of the Lord." Pretending to be a spiritual guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even some ignorant, stupid Muslims by broadcasting his claims to be a saint. "It's actually a Hindu religious symbol meaning `let good prevail. : Sanskrit sources and the Muslims (eighth to fourteenth century), Manohar Publications. Coverage of the temple in Lee market show idols of Hindu gods torn down and thrown out of the temple. The ancient Hindu tradition called sati, wherein a widow would throw herself on her husband’s pyre and burn to death, was initially a voluntary act considered courageous and heroic, but it later became a forced practice. Hindus consider it a very important sacred text. Gerald Larson states, for example, that Hindu nationalists have sought a uniform civil code, where all citizens are subject to the same laws, everyone has equal civil rights, and individual rights do not depend on the individual's religion. [57][58][59] A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and Bengali. [75], Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, and the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term 'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, and retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". 19, No. The main Hindu divinities in Guadeloupe Mariamman The most imposing feature of the Hindu religious belief in the French islands is the worshipping of Mother … For example, the twelve Jyotirlingas of Shaivism and fifty-one Shaktipithas of Shaktism are described in the early medieval era Puranas as pilgrimage sites around a theme. [138][139] According to Diana L. Eck and other Indologists such as André Wink, Muslim invaders were aware of Hindu sacred geography such as Mathura, Ujjain, and Varanasi by the 11th-century. Martin Ramstedt (2003), Hinduism in Modern Indonesia, Routledge, Murdana, I. Ketut (2008), BALINESE ARTS AND CULTURE: A flash understanding of Concept and Behavior, Mudra – JURNAL SENI BUDAYA, Indonesia; Volume 22, page 5-11. These wars were described not just using the mythical story of Rama from Ramayana, states Chattopadhyaya, the medieval records used a wide range of religious symbolism and myths that are now considered as part of Hindu literature. In Hindu belief it is the name of the sage Vasishtha's wife, who is identified with the star. Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press. [88] In the 20th-century, personal laws were formulated for Hindus, and the term 'Hindu' in these colonial 'Hindu laws' applied to Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs in addition to denominational Hindus. [175], Hindu nationalism in India, states Katharine Adeney, is a controversial political subject, with no consensus about what it means or implies in terms of the form of government and religious rights of the minorities. gone is the sacred learning, hidden is refinement, hushed is the voice of Dharma. These orientalists included all Indian religions such as Buddhism as a subgroup of Hinduism in the 18th century. The majority of the French despised Nazi leader Adolf Hitler for not only killing the 6 million Jews but also for militarily humbling France within a matter of days during World War II. [163][164][165] Jaffrelot states that the efforts of Christian missionaries and Islamic proselytizers, during the British colonial era, each of whom tried to gain new converts to their own religion, by stereotyping and stigmatising Hindus to an identity of being inferior and superstitious, contributed to Hindus re-asserting their spiritual heritage and counter cross examining Islam and Christianity, forming organisations such as the Hindu Sabhas (Hindu associations), and ultimately a Hindu-identity driven nationalism in the 1920s. For other uses, see. Ronald Inden (2001), Imagining India, Indiana University Press, para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, Uttar Pradesh v. Sachiv, U.P. Hinduism, along with Buddhism, arrived in Burma during ancient times. [83] In the 11th-century text of Al Biruni, Hindus are referred to as "religious antagonists" to Islam, as those who believe in rebirth, presents them to hold a diversity of beliefs, and seems to oscillate between Hindus holding a centralist and pluralist religious views. In this scheme, Brahma is viewed as creator, Vishnu preserver, and Shiva destroyer/re-fashioner. Thus, the Supreme Court was forced to consider the question whether Jainism is part of Hinduism in 2005 and 2006. Came out and had an interview with [ Khusraw ] SAGE Publications CA. Police source said gj Larson ( 2002 ), Hindu Saṁskāras: Study! Sylvia Vatuk ( 2013 ), theory and presented textual and inscriptional evidence Indiana University Press the of... Let good prevail Hindu Nationalism: a Reader, Princeton University Press source of all that exists '! 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